Although the majority of the significant architectural works of the 20th century are reinforced concrete, the renovation and restoration of the structures built with this material is a relatively new and rarely studied subject in the literature. However, the construction of reinforced concrete structures has been going on for more than a century and many deteriorations are seen in early reinforced concrete structures due to air pollution, climatic factors, and misuse problems. As the façades have more been exposed to the deformations caused by external factors such as black soiling, biological growth, vegetation, etc. occur especially on the façades of reinforced concrete buildings, and cause rapid and visible alterations in the appearance and physical condition of the building. It is necessary to find the right methods for cleaning these deformations in order to restore the original architectural design and the surface of the buildings.
Surface cleaning is an important part of the restoration work carried out in various historical buildings from various periods. There are different surface cleaning methods according to different historical building materials such as stone, brick, wood, etc, as well as specialized methods for cleaning historic concrete surfaces. These can be classified as water-based cleaning, abrasive blasting, laser cleaning, chemical cleaning, poultices-based cleaning, and biocides-based cleaning.
The aim of this study is to explain the surface problems that occur in historical reinforced concrete buildings and their cleaning methods. The fact that these structures were built with early reinforced concrete techniques makes them to be more delicate for chemical reactions, especially caused by primary and secondary air pollutants, compared to today's reinforced concrete structures. For this reason, it is very important that the cleaning processes are carried out accurately and without damaging the structure with the right methods.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Historical reinforced concrete, Surface problems, Cleaning methods